Antonio Di Ieva is a Professor of Neurosurgery and an Associate Professor of Neuroanatomy. He has published more than 100 peer-reviewed articles, 3 books, and several book chapters and won 7 international awards in Neurosurgery and Neurosciences. He reviews the most intriguing applications of fractal analysis in neuroscience with a focus on current and future potential, limits, advantages, and disadvantages. Will bring an understanding of fractals to clinicians and researchers also if they do not have a mathematical background, and will serve as a good tool for teaching the translational applications of computational models to students and scholars of different disciplines. This comprehensive collection is organized into four parts: (1) Basics of fractal analysis; (2) Applications of fractals to the basic neurosciences; (3) Applications of fractals to the clinical neurosciences; (4) Analysis software, modeling, and methodology.